Indigenous rapper Briggs says Malcolm Turnbull should stop being a ‘coward’ over Australia Day

Indigenous rapper Briggs says Malcolm Turnbull should stop being a ‘coward’ over Australia Day

Messenger In July, a new date was published that pushed the opening chapters of Australian history back to 65, years ago. It is the latest development in a time revolution that has gripped the nation over the past half century. In the s, it was widely believed that the first Australians had arrived on this continent only a few thousand years earlier. In the decades since, Indigenous history has been pushed back into the dizzying expanse of deep time. While people have lived in Australia, volcanoes have erupted, dunefields have formed, glaciers have melted and sea levels have risen about metres, transforming Lake Carpentaria into a Gulf and the Bassian Plain into a Strait. Human experiences are reduced to numbers. To political leaders, old dates bestow a veneer of antiquity to a young settler nation. To scientists, they propel Australian history into a global human story and allow us to see ourselves as a species.

10 Fascinating Discoveries From Ancient Australia

In between ads enticing the viewer to part with cash for the chance to be told they descend from a Viking or a Polynesian princess free shipping if you order now! Tanzania is the backdrop of much of the episode, with the three stars mingling with the Hadza people who, we are told, are the direct descendants of the first Homo sapiens to evolve. As the first episode closed we watched our intrepid travellers walk out of Africa, just like their ancestors some 50 years ago.

From there, we are told, the three will part ways, each on their individual genetic journey. The suspense will entice many viewers back to see episode two, but others will be left with unanswered and uneasy questions. How African is Ernie?

Boomerangs were long used by Aborigine tribes.

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Why New Zealand’s Maori got a treaty, and Australia’s Indigenous peoples didn’t

Andrew Meares In the lead up to the report, several prominent Aboriginal leaders have expressed frustration and anger that their voices were neither being respected nor heard. In his response, Opposition Leader Bill Shorten said multicultural success was not complete until Aboriginal inequality was addressed. Labor is supporting calls by Indigenous leaders to add a new target on closing the incarceration gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, with Mr Shorten saying: In health, the gap in child mortality is on track to halve by , with Indigenous child death rates decreasing 33 per cent between and In reading and numeracy for years three, five, seven and nine students, only half of these categories are on track for achieving national minimum standards.

After the early childhood education target failed and expired in , the government has renewed a commitment to seeing 95 per cent of four-year-olds enrolled by

Australian Aborigine artists have continued to practice their traditional arts and crafts into the modern era, creating in the process a unique and unbroken record of artistic expression.

First Fleet a good thing: Abbott First Fleet a good thing: More videos Uluru Summit: Indigenous groups gather to discuss constitutional recognition Hundreds of Indigenous people from across the country are at Uluru to discuss whether they want to be recognised in the constitution The key is in the different timings during the development of modern international law, which was undergoing major change when Britain claimed half of Australia in Then, the major source of that law was custom.

Treaties were considered a minor part and, even, not law itself but merely agreements between sovereigns. International law’s main authorities were the books of legal scholars. Britain’s first such English-language texts were by William Blackstone, who wrote in

Australia failing to close the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people

In , researchers ran tests on the genomes of various South and Central American tribes and found that a few Amazonian tribes were more closely related to the Aboriginals in Australia than any of the Eurasian cultures other tribes descended from. It seems that a single group split, with one portion heading to South America and the other to Australia.

As the continents continued to shift, the two tribes were divided by an ocean. The site was originally discovered in

Over the last , years, the humans that became the Hadza have changed and evolved, just as much as people who now identify as Slovenian, Japanese or Indigenous Australian.

General characteristics[ edit ] Like other mammals, monotremes are warm-blooded with a high metabolic rate though not as high as other mammals; see below ; have hair on their bodies; produce milk through mammary glands to feed their young; have a single bone in their lower jaw; and have three middle-ear bones.

In common with reptiles and marsupials , monotremes lack the connective structure corpus callosum which in placental mammals is the primary communication route between the right and left brain hemispheres. Fossil forms and modern platypus young have a “tribosphenic” form of molars with the occlusal surface formed by three cusps arranged in a triangle , which is one of the hallmarks of extant mammals. Some recent work suggests that monotremes acquired this form of molar independently of placental mammals and marsupials, [7] although this is not well established.

As in all true mammals, the tiny bones that conduct sound to the inner ear are fully incorporated into the skull, rather than lying in the jaw as in cynodonts and other premammalian synapsids ; this feature, too, is now claimed to have evolved independently in monotremes and therians , [10] although, as with the analogous evolution of the tribosphenic molar, this is disputed. The sequencing of the platypus genome has also provided insight into the evolution of a number of monotreme traits, such as venom and electroreception , as well as showing some new unique features, such as the fact that monotremes possess 10 sex chromosomes and that their X chromosome resembles the sex chromosome of birds, [14] suggesting that the two sex chromosomes of marsupial and placental mammals evolved more recently than the split from the monotreme lineage.

DNA suggests that while this trait is shared and is synapomorphic with birds, platypuses are still mammals and they evolved lactation with other mammals. Monotremes retain a reptile-like gait, with legs on the sides of, rather than underneath, their bodies. The monotreme leg bears a spur in the ankle region; the spur is not functional in echidnas, but contains a powerful venom in the male platypus. This venom is derived from b-defensins, proteins that are present in mammals that create holes in viral and bacterial pathogens.

Some reptile venom is also composed of different types of b-defensins, another trait shared with reptiles. August Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the French article.

Why New Zealand’s Maori got a treaty, and Australia’s Indigenous peoples didn’t

Bradshaws now called Gwion art are among the most sophicated forms of cave painting in Australia. Introduction Australian Aboriginal rock art may be the oldest Stone Age art on the planet. This possibility is supported by the studies of Professor Stephen Oppenheimer, whose research combines genetic analysis with climatology, archeology, fossil analysis and modern dating methods, in order to juxtapose early migration with early rock art , see for example his book “Out of Eden: According to Oppenheimer, modern humans first began arriving in Australia from islands across the Timor Sea during the Middle Paleolithic era, between 70, and 60, BCE.

Evidence of the ancient art if any of this first wave of aboriginal settlers is extremely scarce, but there are signs of pigment usage which suggest that they began painting almost immediately, although this might have been face or body painting rather than rock painting. In any event, human occupation in Australia has been carbon-dated to at least 53, BCE, and the oldest Australian human fossil has been dated to around 38, BCE – the difference probably being due to the drowning of the earliest coastal occupation sites by rising sea-levels:

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Scroll your mouse wheel to zoom in or out within the magnifying circle. On touch screens, tap once on the screen to show the magnifying circle. Then, keep your finger on the screen and move the circle around to show the zoomed in map. No reproduction without permission. For thousands of years, the original inhabitants of Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples occupied the lands with very different boundaries than today, centred on intimate cultural relationships with the land and sea.

Aboriginal groups were included on the map based on the published resources available between and which determine the cultural, language and trade boundaries and relationships between groups. Regions were determined using the watershed basis as a template. The map was developed along with the Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia as part of a research project. The Encyclopedia is available in libraries and contains more detailed information about the groups represented on the map.

It was blackfella country. The map is not definitive and is not the only information available which maps language and social groups. The information on which the map is based is contested and may not be agreed to by some landowners. The borders between groups are purposefully represented as slightly blurred.

Why New Zealand’s Maori got a treaty, and Australia’s Indigenous peoples didn’t

Indigenous Australians Aboriginal rock art in the Kimberley region of Western Australia Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65, to 70, years ago, [37] [38] with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia. These first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders , ethnically Melanesian , obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas.

European exploration of Australia Portrait of Captain James Cook , the first European to map the eastern coastline of Australia in The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent in , are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon.

The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney , and the exploration and settlement of other regions.

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Indigenous rapper Briggs says Malcolm Turnbull should stop being a ‘coward’ over Australia Day

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In , he used the new technique at Kenniff Cave in the central Queensland highlands and was stunned to discover that Australia had been occupied during the last Ice Age.


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